However, other research (e.g., Foster et al; Christianson and Hubinette) into real-life incidents involving high levels of stress, have shown that in such situations, memory can be detailed, accurate and long-lasting. * Unpleasant emotional state where we fear that something bad is about to happen usually accompanied by physiological arousal (pumping heart) Memory recall has been considered a credible source in the past, but has recently come under attack as forensics can now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions are unreliable; being easily manipulated, altered, and biased. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. By: Megan Hong Grantham University One of the most widely known studies into anxiety affecting eyewitness testimony is Loftus’ study to find out if anxiety during a witnessed incident affects the accuracy of later identification. The participants were later asked to pick out the person they saw leave the room with the knife/pen from 50 photographs. Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. In the experimental condition, participants were subject to a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture, a man then emerged from the room holding a knife covered in blood. Evidence: For example, Christianson and Hubinette (1993) studied the recall of witnesses to real bank robberies. Objectives: To be able to outline factors affecting eyewitness testimony including leading questions. Among those who were under moderate stress (not threatened with physical ... (12 marks)“Outline and evaluate research into how anxiety effects eye witness testimony” (12 marks) Post-event discussion. Loftus believed that the anxiety caused by the weapon (i.e., blood –stained knife) narrowed the focus of attention for the witness and took attention away from the face of the man – therefore making their recall (EWT) less detailed and less accurate. Factors affecting Eyewitness Testimony. eight picture line-up. 6 AO1 marks would come from a description of relevant research studies. harm), 76% were right. * Weapon Focus Effect Eyewitness testimony is a legal term. There isn’t a simple relationship between emotional arousal and the accuracy of EWT. Factors that Influence EWT eyewitness’s do make mistakes on identifying someone and causes that person to be wrongfully ... Factors affecting accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony - Duration: 27:04. * Linked to anxiety – if there is a weapon involved is attention driven only to weapon? Evaluation: This is a weakness because the studying can be seen to be breaching the BPS guidelines as Loftus hasn’t protected her participants from harm – such a scene may cause the participant a great deal of distress. stress) were correct. Discuss Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony Essay Sample. There are factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony such as emotions, fundamental attribution bias, face recognition in other races, leading questions and many more. Misleading information is where a person may be asked a question to either provoke a specific answer or lead the witness to an out of context situation. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. These factors include characteristics of the witness, characteristics of the witnessed event, characteristics of testimony, lineup content, lineup instructions, and methods of testing. However this study lacked mundane realism. Description, AO1 – Research into factors (anxiety) affecting the accuracy of EWT: Loftus (1979), This study aimed to investigate effect of anxiety levels on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. There are three phases of the memory process: Encoding, Storage, and... ... One of the key findings is that EWT is often inaccurate and is affected by various factors; one being age. The multi store /Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model was first recognised in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin. However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors: Anxiety / Stress ...Eye Witness Testimony Evidence: Deffenbacher et al concluded from meta-analysis that anxiety levels that are too low or too high negatively affect EWT accuracy suggesting that eyewitness testimony is impaired if a person becomes too anxious. After 48 hours of being deprived of food and We've all experienced, at one time or another, our own memories failing us at times, and this may have been due to a number of factors. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of EWT Description, AO1 – Anxiety and EWT: There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). However, misleading information in the real world can come from other sources, for example other witnesses (co-witnesses), when they discuss the details of a crime of accident, following an incident. Thirdly, anxiety research raises ethical issues. This information is then delivered by the bystander in a courtroom, where the jury must pay special attention and may even come to a decision based on this, somewhat reliable piece of evidence. Outline and evaluate the research into eyewitness testimony. * Loftus et al... ...Eyewitness Testimony 1 Furthermore, jurors tend to rely on factors that are known not to strongly predict identification accuracy. Word Count = 799 (Not including headings and bibliography) Eye witness testimony is a statement given under oath which police departments widely reply on. ...Eye Witness Testimony We review major developments in the experimental literature concerning the way that various factors relate to the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Considerable research has addressed how jurors evaluate eyewitness memory and whether their evaluations can be improved. A strength of both of these studies is that they are naturalistic experiments, so have more ecological validity, but the study doesn’t take into account individual differences, because different people respond to anxiety in different... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes, Without Connection to Others There Is No Me, Zoophilia: Human Sexual Behavior and Local Dog Shelter. Laboratory based studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed unpleasant or anxiety-inducing situations (e.g., research by Loftus). ‘Outline and evaluate research into eyewitness testimony.’ ... one of the main factors is the role of anxiety. expert testimony is based on ‘a reliable body of knowledge or experience’.15 Combining both these empirical and legal questions, we argue that the categorical rejection of all expert evidence on the credibility and reliability of witness testimony is not justified, but nor is … Laboratory study Loftus (1979) asked participants to wait outside a room before the study began. Cohen describes “erroneous eyewitness testimony” as being the “leading cause of wrongful conviction”. The significance of eyewitness testimony was highlighted in this report and resulted in much more research being undertaken. Eye witness testimonies are accounts from witnesses to a crime or accident given as evidence in a court or to the police. Mark Maldonado Evaluation: This is positive because it is further evidence that high levels of anxiety can result in a false eyewitness testimony, as found in Loftus’ research, supporting the theory that anxiety affects EWT accuracy. Cognitive psychologists believe that under stressful situations a person can encode the Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview. This recollection is used as evidence to show what happened from a witness' point of view. An illustration of the affect factors such as prima inquiries can hold on eyewitness testimonies is … Condition 1 heard what they believed to be an amicable discussion about equipment failure, after which a man came out with greasy hands, holding a pen. taking inquiries and many more. 2004) they placed 500 In lieu of an abstract, below is the article's first paragraph. Because of this study and other studies psychologist suggest that the accuracy of eyewitness suggest that information given from them is far less reliable than we might have first thought. Outline and evaluate research into the effect of anxiety on eyewitness performance. Evaluation, AO3 of Loftus (1979) research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of EWTeval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',112,'0','0'])); (1) Point: Further research from Deffenbacher et al (1983) supports the suggestion that anxiety affects the accuracy of EWT. ... 06 Outline and briefly evaluate locus of control as an explanation of resistance to social influence. Procedure:eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',111,'0','0'])); Those who had witness the man holding a pen correctly identified the target 49% of the time, compared to those who had witness the man holding a knife, who correctly identified the target 33% of the time. Witness confidenc… But only 34% of those that WERE threatened with physical harm (high I have the AO1 bit down - I have written about studies by Flin et al. During the acquisition process, there are a number of factors that can affect an eyewitness’ report of an event. They can often be misled when asked the questions. (1) Point: Research has contradicted Loftus’ study suggesting that anxiety can improve the accuracy of EWT. Evaluation: This is a weakness as it goes against Loftus’ finding that anxiety reduces EWT accuracy and suggests that anxiety-creating situations don’t always divert attention from important features of the situation.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-box-4','ezslot_3',113,'0','0'])); (2) Point: Loftus’s study can be criticised as being unethical. The findings from this study were that those who were closer gave a more accurate account, and those who were closest provided more detail. A study showing the effect of age on EWT was carried out by Flin et al, he asked children and adults the same questions about an incident they had witnessed, one day after the event and then again after five … In a military study on highly stressful interrogations (Morgan et al. They asked participants to estimate the speed of two cars, changing cues provided in the question. PSHYCHOLOGY OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF EWT( EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY) One of the most important practical applications of memory research involves EWT (eyewitness testimony). Outline and evaluate leading questions and post-event discussion as factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (16 marks) Describe: Leading questions are phrased in a way that influences/prompts a certain response Research: Two conditions shown the same video. PS280 Psychology and the law Both of these models propose that memory is a complex phenomenon that must go... ...Should eyewitness testimony be used as evidence in a court of law? Using trial simulation methods, research demonstrates that jurors are often insensitive to the factors that are known to influence eyewitness memory: stress experienced by the witness, weapon focus, and the influence of suggestive identification procedures. There has been a vast amount of interest into eyewitness testimony (EWT). ...Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eye witness testimony. Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, ... the individual believes that the post-event information is in fact the original memory and falsely report this during testimony questioning. military members in a mock prisoner of war camp. Although, eyewitness are relied on frequently there is strong research to suggest it isn’t as reliable as we may think. Moreover the participants were awaiting for something to happen to therefore you result in demand characteristics. cardinal ascription prejudice. identified. Evidence: For example, participants in condition 2 witnessed quite a disturbing scene – the confederate leaving the office holding the blood stained knife. * Loftus et al – participants heard an argument then saw a man in a pen stained shirt with a pen in is hand or a man in a blood stained shirt and a paper knife in his hand. * Deffenbacher – MA of studies found considerable support for a negative correlation between anxiety and EWT meaning the more anxious the less accurate their testimonies were. Eyewitness testimony can be an incredibly compelling form of evidence during criminal justice proceedings in Austin. There is also another study, Christianson and Hubinette, interviewed people who had witnessed genuine bank robberies and found that the people who had been subjected to the greatest anxiety had the most detailed and accurate recall. Research regularly shows that EWT is affecting by experiences occuring after a witnessed event. One factor that is thought to have a significant effect on eyewitness memory is the degree of emotional arousal or stress experienced by the witness during the crime. This study did not lack mundane realism as the participants were real witnesses. In over 300 cases, the eyewitness testimony was the sole “evidence” used in conviction. Key Word. ...The Inconsistency of Also they tested students who may be better at recalling information rather than someone much older which shows low population validity. and Loftus et al. The weapon focus effect phenomenon as identified by Loftus 1979, she asked participants to sit outside a laboratory where they thought they were hearing a genuine exchange between people inside the laboratory. “Eyewitness testimony is so unreliable that it should never be used in convicting criminals”. An example of the affect factors such as leading questions can have on eyewitness testimonies is the … information incompletely or inaccurately (Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, &McGorty, 2004). Eyewitness Testimony 2 convicted. This is solely because human memory is fragile and malleable. Every year, more than 75,000 eyewitnesses identify criminal suspects in the U.S., and studies suggest that as many as a third of them are wrong. Eye witness testimonies are affected by a number of factors, but the one that I am going to focus on is anxiety. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. Evaluation, AO3 of Loftus (1979) research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of EWT. Eyewitness testimonies’ have been considered a credible source in the past, but have recently come under attack as forensics now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions are unreliable; as they are easily manipulated, altered, and biased. * Anxiety Research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors including anxiety and stress, reconstructive memory and also the use of leading questions. Project that stated 75% of the 218 people exonerated on the basis of DNA were mistakenly The guilt or innocence of people is often decided on the accuracy of the memories of eyewitnesses. Loftus and Palmer were interested to see how something as simple as a misleading question affected those who were taken as eyewitnesses. Many people throughout Western North Carolina believe eyewitness testimony is one of the most solid types of evidence in criminal cases. More than 2,000 studies on eyewitnesses in recent decades have determined that recollections are prone to decay, distortion, and suggestion. Outline and Evaluate research into coding/capacity/duration of STM and LTM (8/10) 12. Why are so many eyewitnesses mistaken? I just have no idea what to write for AO2! Factors affecting Eye witness testimony- Memory (2.05) Psychology AQA paper 1 - Duration: 15:15. 74% of these 300 cases resulted in criminal convictions. There is conflicting evidence about the effect of stress and anxiety on the accuracy of EWT (i.e., the accuracy of witness recall). Half of them were threatened with physical harm and Post was not sent - check your email addresses! After being criticised for its supposed simplicity, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed the working memory model. ... Further research by Loftus and Palmer supports the role of misleading information affecting the accuracy of EWT. However, inaccuracies in EWT are common, accounting for about 75% of incorrect convictions later found to be innocent using DNA evidence. Choosing 3 studies, perhaps 1 lab study and 2 real life ones, and describing them in simple paragraphs would be sufficient. Eyewitness Testimonies in the Legal Setting Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony (12 marks) I don't really know what to write for this question. They found that more dramatic words can influence someone’s memory when asked to recall a situation, even after a week they found that the whole word had influenced their whole memory. Loftus and palmer were interested in seeing how misleading questions affected eyewitness testimony, they conducted a lab experiment in which 45 students were shown films of traffic accidents, they were then asked a question about how fast the car was going, students were either given the verb hit, smashed, contacted, collided or bumped. Refers to the use of eye or ear witnesses in court or in police statements about the identity of someone who has committed a crime. Research into eye witness testimonies being affected by anxiety is mixed and It is believed that eye witness testimony is most accurate when the anxiety level is somewhere in between low and high anxiety. Laughery et al (1971) tested subjects on their recall based on the exposure time to a picture, showed one at a time of different positions of a human face. Research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors including anxiety and stress, reconstructive memory and also the use of leading questions. Factors which can influence EWT are; misleading questions, post event information, emotional arousal, stress, cognitive interview, weapon focus effect and age. A key factor is the use of misleading information (information that suggests a desired response), especially in the form of leading questions and post-event discussion. The knife became the central detail and was what the participants focussed on and the man’s face became the peripheral detail, which meant that it was unlikely that it would be remembered accurately. and Memon et al. the other half was not. They found that increased arousal led to improvements in the accuracy of recall. This includes information about the perpetrator(s) as well as information about the crime and crime scene. 04 Identify three variables affecting conformity and outline how eachof these was investigated in Asch’s experiment. Eyewitness testimony can create a number of problems for police and prosecutors. The term ‘eye witness testimony' refers to the of exploration into the accuracy and reliability of storage concerning significant events, ... Outline and Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Essay. Deffenbacher (1983) was one of the first to investigate the link between anxiety and EWT and after reviewing 21 studies, he found that accuracy is poor when emotional arousal is either high or low, but is better under conditions of moderate arousal. Investigated how misleading information can alter memory post event. Eyewitness testimony is the account a bystander gives in the courtroom, describing what they perceived happened during the specific incident under investigation. Outline and evaluate the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony AO1 AO2 Yerkes Dodson law – states that there is an optimum level of anxiety for accurate eyewitness testimony. Critically evaluate the cognitive approach to psychology Pages: 7 (1574 words) Outline and evaluate the behavioural approach to abnormality Pages: 3 (550 words) The Cognitive Interview and Eyewitness Credibility Pages: 7 (1544 words) After one day they were asked to identify their interrogator’s from an In condition 2, the participants heard a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture. Outline and evaluate how retrieval failure due to the absence of cues leads to forgetting (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level) Factors affecting eyewitness testimony. There is an organization called the Innocence Exposure time to the event or object of focus is an event factor. Eyewitness testimony is admissible in a court of law to assist in the conviction of individuals. Eyewitness Testimony Eye witness testimonies are the evidence given in court or in police investigation by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident. One source of misleading information comes from leading questions. Numerous factors may affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, which may lead to people being convicted of crimes they did not commit. Innocent people are mistaken far more often that people think. In 1976, the Devlin report examined over 2000 identity parades in the U.K. Of the 2000 parades, 45% resulted in a suspect being identified and out of these, 82% were eventually convicted of a crime. One piece of research that has explored factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, comes from Loftus and Palmer (1974). Please join StudyMode to read the full document. This shows that in real life eyewitness testimony anxiety can heighten the accuracy of recall (Christian and Hubbinette, 1993) whereas Loftus (1979) suggested that anxiety particularly posed by a weapon may decrease recall accuracy. Perhaps the issue at hand was not important to us at the time, and The man then emerged from the laboratory holding a knife covered in blood. RUNNING HEAD: Eyewitness Testimony The model attempts to identify the process that a stimulus must go through to become a retrievable memory. Yuille and Cutshall interviewed people who had witnessed a real life shooting and found that recall was very accurate despite high levels of anxiety, however, the people who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened. Outline And Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment HelpIn most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study. Some witnesses has seen the incident close, while some from further away. They interviewed witnesses to a real life shooting. 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